Welcome to Indian Defence Information

Indian millitary system is a very well organized section of defence that we all feel proud of as Indians. Indian millitary forms the backbone of Indian Defence. Newer and improved weapons are needed by the army to fight back. To make yourself up to date and informed about the new developements of technology in Indian Military, browse through this blog. Know how technology has been highly embraced in our Indian Millitary System.

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

IAF To Get Akash Missiles This Year

BY: AviationWeek

For the first time, Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) is integrating various systems for the Rs 10,000 crore ($2.6 billion) Akash surface-to-air missile (SAM) project.

BEL Chairman and Managing Director A.K. Datt told Aviation Week that the first phase of deliveries to the Indian air force (IAF) would begin this year. The IAF has placed orders for two squadrons, and BEL is expecting to provide for four more squadrons soon after the initial delivery schedule is complete.

BEL sources confirmed to Aviation Week that the Indian army also may order a different variant of the missile for two of its squadrons.

“There are many agencies involved in the Akash program, and our job is to integrate all the systems and subsystems and then ship to the desired destination,” a source said.

The first two squadrons of IAF missiles will consist of 48 units each. “The numbers for the future squadrons would be different, and it is left to the customer to decide on that,” the source added, declining to provide a firm number for future orders.

Developed as part of India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Program by the Defense Research & Development Organization, Akash is an all-weather, medium-range, surface-to-air missile system. It has a multidirectional, multitarget area defense capability and can take on multiple air targets in a fully autonomous mode of operations.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Nishant Nears End Of Confirmation Trials

India’s Nishant UAV entered its last lap of confirmation trials in Pokhran April 26.

Officials with India’s Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) say that the unmanned aircraft has met all requirements.

The final flight is scheduled for April 27, according to a member of DRDO’s 60-strong contingent at Pokhan.

The trials, which began on April 20, are testing the quality of the UAV’s high-resolution video images and tracking abilities, which are both crucial for forward operations (Aerospace DAILY, April 26). “Nishant has proved that it is better than other UAVs during extreme wind, temperature and sandy conditions at Pokhran. Its visibility during extreme hostile conditions has been proved to the user,” a source said.

Four UAVs from the limited series production (LSP) family were active during the Pokhran trials. DRDO is confident that the Indian army, will now go ahead and place orders for another eight aircraft in phases.

“We are keen to hear from the users now,” a source added. “Apart from the army, we had senior officials from other internal Indian forces present during the trials. We have done our bit and now let’s wait and see what the user has to say.”

More about INS Shivalik

By Vice Adm Rajeshwer Nath

Shivalik is the first ship of the Project 17 Frigates designed by the Indian Navy and built by Mazagon Docks Limited Mumbai. This project was conceived to incorporate stealth features and in the process other state of the art systems are also introduced in a modern indigenous warship. The Navy has succeeded in design and building of such a sophisticated class of warship with indigenous efforts duly supported by industry and select international agencies. The success of this project and the novel features built into the design of Project 17 Frigates are briefly highlighted in this articles.

The stealth features make it difficult for the enemy to locate this ship and the detection ranges have been considerably reduced. The modern payload judiciously selected for this class of warship adds to the lethal punch of the growing blue water capability of the Navy. The combined diesel or gas - CODOG main propulsion system provides simplicity and reliability in operations, gives higher endurance ranges and is most economical in fuel consumption. This will result in as low as one-third operating costs compared to combined gas or gas - COGOG system. The savings may be over Rs 2000 crores over the lifecycle of the warship.

The lines of the ship and the form parameters have been so evolved by the designers to give the best hydrodynamic and sea keeping, manoeuvrability and handling characteristics. Even on high speeds, there is no roll, no pitch, no vibrations and the ship has turned out to be ideal, stable naval platform for naval warfare. The propellers have been specially designed for cavitation inception speeds of over 22 knots and qualify to be quiet and silent propellers.

For enhancing the warfare capability, the warship incorporates new generation technology through an indigenous system called the AISDN (ATM based integrated ship borne data network) that allows electronic information from ship’s sensors and systems to be transmitted digitally in real time over the common data base. ATM has been seen as the ultimate networking technology that will allow the true broadband working for the future. The warship incorporates advanced survivability features through robust structure, ample watertight sections and fire zones.
Habitability is considerably improved through modular accommodation totally air conditioned. The concept of Total Atmospheric Control (TAC) has been adopted where all the air intake is through the Air Filteration Units (AFUs) and the TACs controls temperature and humidity of air coming into the ship at all times. This warship caters for women officers serving on board.

Stealth Features

The primary aim of stealth is to reduce platform susceptibility, increase survivability and therefore prevent damage and reduce demands on defensive systems. Low signatures make the detection of the ship more difficult and give it more time to react. The important signature are Radar Cross Section (RCS), Radiated Noise, and Infra Red (IR).

Radar Cross Section

The Radar Cross Section (RCS) is entirely determined by the shape and material properties of the ‘above water part’ of the ship’s hull, superstructure and sensor fit. RCS of a target is its ability to capture incident EM energy and radiate back towards radar. RCS is reduced by hull-shaping, to avoid vertical surfaces and avoid corner reflectors. Radar transparent materials have been used for manufacture of guard rail stanchions and helicopter grid frames. RCS screens have been provided for the boats. Several computer programmes are available for prediction of radar signatures, which serve as an effective tool for comparison of various options and evolving a good stealth ship design. RCS reduction and prediction are generally performed in frequency range 2 - 40 GHZs. The following table shows the comparison of typical RCS values of a conventional ship with vertical surfaces and the kind of reductions possible by simple shaping and concealment of weapons, exposed deck fittings and equipment:-

 Infra Red Signatures

The principal sources of infra red - IR signature are the plume and hot parts of the stacks. Work on the IR signatures concentrates on the reduction of exhaust gas temperatures and cooling of visible exhaust ducting. The electro magnetic radiation emitted by the ship from the above sources in the two infra red band widths; 3-5m (medium infra red) band and 8-12 FIR (far Infra red) band is used in designing the IR sensors to detect the ship. The IR signature of the engine exhaust can be reduced by approximately 95 percent in the 3-5m band by a plume cooling device. The IRSS device “Eductor Diffuser” system has been used for the main machinery. A typical polar diagrams for unsuppressed and suppressed ship IR are shown in Figure-6

Acoustic Signatures

The sources of underwater radiated noise in ship are mainly from machinery both propulsion and auxiliary, flow fluid in the distributed pipe line systems and cavitation of propellers. It is necessary to employ great care to incorporate suitable noise suppression measures to achieve low noise target levels. These include resilient mounts, double mounts, rafts, flexible coupling, quiet propellers etc. The typical curves of radiated noise with and without stealth features are show in figure-4.

Integrated Management of Stealth

The 21st century will see more and more attention being paid to stealth features in an integrated manner to deliver the most optimum solution. Signature reduction will form only one part of a balanced stealth capability. The reduction of platform susceptibility can be achieved in a variety of ways including signature reduction, camouflage, deception, decoys, confusion, hiding and jamming. All aspects of signature management need to be coordinated at all stages of ship design, production and procurement.

Modern Payload

The payload for the Project 17 frigates has been judiciously chosen to give lethal punch and at the same time be stealth in nature. The SRGM 76 mm gun has been specially designed and manufactured for stealth features. SSM and PDMS are in VLS configuration and thus provide stealth. The area SAM and the Anti submarine RBU-6000 if made in VLS configuration for future designs will further reduce the RCS signature. The ship is equipped with variety of weapon systems for multi purpose role including anti ship, anti air and anti submarine. The weapon systems include SSM, SAM, PDMS, RBU-6000, SRGM 76 mm gun, 630 mm guns, MFR, FCRs, ESM/ECM, Sonar, CAIO, two helicopters etc.

AISDN (ATM based integrated ship borne data network)

Shivalik is fitted with third generation Composite Communication System (CCS), intelligent versatile communication system (IVCS), and sophisticated ATM based Integrated Ship Borne Data Network (AISDN) with fibre optics cable throughout the ship. The AISDN provides an integrated backbone network for voice, video, and data communications on a single broad band network. The AISDN has the following objectives :-

■Provide a networking backbone to integrate the data of weapons and sensors to all command and control systems as well as communication systems.

■Share weapon sensor data with each other in acceptable formats.

■Provide backbone to integrate internal and external communication systems.

■Monitor the health and status of command, control and communication systems at a central location.

The AISDN system provides the required flexibility and redundancy to the users on board. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a standardized digital data transmission technology and is a dedicated- connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53- byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. ATM has been seen as the ultimate networking technology that will allow broad band networking for the future. However fast Ethernet and gigabit Ethernet have brought more bandwidth to the LAN technology and is being preferred.

CAIO (Computer Aided Action Information Organization)

Towards ensuring a multi sensor, multi weapon scenario, the Project 17 Frigates are fitted with advanced CAIO system. The CAIO system collates all sensor data for exploitation, does threat evaluation, controls and designates weapon system. In CAIO, there is central availability of all sensor data to the command for supporting decision making. This ensures no duplicity of “action taken”. CAIO also ensures sensor data fusion. It allows for “informed” decision by command due overlay of radars, EW, and other available inputs. CAIO also enables central disposition and receipt of data to and from other platforms through data link system. The CAIO for Project 17 ships have been jointly developed by Indian Navy with foreign expert agency.

CODOG (Combined Diesel or Gas) Main Propulsion and IPMS

Project 17 Frigates have been designed with CODOG main propulsion system with LM-2500 fuel efficient gas turbines supplied through HAL Bangalore and Pielstick Diesel engines supplied through KOEL India. CODOG propulsion provides simplicity in operation, achieves over 30 knot speed and minimal fuel consumption. For comparable operating profile, the consumption of fuel is nearly one-third in case of CODOG propulsion as compared to COGOG arrangement. This will save fuel costs of about Rs 50 crores per annum at prices prevailing today.

An intelligent Integrated Platform Management System - IPMS on board Project 17 frigates, controls the operation of main propulsion machinery, auxiliary machinery, battle damage control and associated other systems.

The Propellers have been specially designed for low noise and with cavitation inception speed of over 22 knots. The inward turning propellers give narrow wake. The shaft rake is low. The shaft brackets are very carefully aligned to the flow. The stabilizers are perpendicular to the tangent to hull lines to give superior alignment. These design features have contributed to minimal noise and minimal vibrations.

Structural Integrity, Habitability, TACs - Total Atmospheric Controls

Structural integrity of very high order has been provided through robust hull structure, ample water tight sections and fire zones, special fire insulation and smoke clearing arrangements. Expansion joints are specially designed in a manner that the forward superstructure and the after superstructure are welded to the hull and the middle superstructure is suspended on bulkheads, giving freedom to the main hull to flex and allow expansion of main hull girder. This reduces stress on structure.

Habitability: Modular accommodation, totally air conditioned has been provided. Even the galley is air conditioned through separate dedicated ATUs. The automated galley will enable the crew to be fed with Indian, Continental and Asian gourmet meals including freshly baked bread, Dosas and chapattis.

The TACS - total atmospheric control - filters and controls the temperature and humidity of the air coming into the ship at all times. It removes any radioactive, chemical or biological impurities thereby protecting the crew and systems even during nuclear attack. All the air is taken through AFUs - air filtration units and there are no mushroom heads on the top deck. Three numbers citadels have been provided which are user friendly and easier to maintain. Decontamination facilities have been provided on board.

Women Naval Officers

Project 17 Frigates have been provided with accommodation for women naval officers serving on board. Their cabin has attached bathroom, bigger wardrobe space and located near the captains suite.


Shivalik has come out as a potent warship, as good if not better than any other advanced modern naval frigate in the world. The Indian Navy has thus displayed their capability in design and building of a new generation stealth frigate with futuristic technologies. These include integrated stealth, lethal payload with advanced CAIO, modern fuel efficient CODOG propulsion with state of the art IPMS, ATM based integrated ship borne data network - AISDN, third generation CCS and IVCS, total atmospheric control TACS.

The lines of the ship and form parameters have been so optimally evolved for most superior hydrodynamic, sea keeping, manoeuvrability and handling performance demonstrated successfully at sea during trials. Shivalik has turned out to be an ideal, versatile and stable naval platform with minimal ship motions and minimal vibrations for naval warfare. CODOG propulsion plant offers simplicity and reliability in operations with higher endurance ranges and as most economical in fuel consumption. The above state of the art and futuristic technologies have been the pride of very few select nations like USA, UK, France, Germany, Netherlands and Italy.

India is now a proud member of this exclusive club with cutting edge warship technology. It needs to be emphasised that the Project 17 stealth frigate design is totally indigenous evolved ab-initio by the Indian Navy. Some reports in the media mention, Shivalik design having been derived from a foreign acquired ship. These are incorrect reports. Instead some of the features of Project 17 had been incorporated in the acquired ships during negotiations. The success of Shivalik indigenous design can be attributed to various factors like continuity of the key officers directing the design, Government sanction for completing the design before the sanction for building the ships, democratic and transparent manner of working amongst design, staff and professional directorates, liberal communications and involvement with industry.

The follow-on ships of Project 17A will see refinements in design based on experience gained and lessons learnt in Project 17, design. Future ship design and construction will be influenced by advances in both manufacturing techniques and technologies, along with improvements in the ship design environment, resulting from greater use of computer base data bases and graphic tools. The next generation digital shipbuilding will simulate and optimise the entire shipbuilding life cycle process in a virtual environment from the initial development to delivery. This will increase productivity, reduce costs, improve quality in warship building.

Vice Admiral Rajeshwer Nath

Sunday, April 25, 2010

IAF will induct Pak-FA by 2018 : Air chief


Indian Air Force wants to induct Indo-Russian Built Pak-Fa aircraft by 2018 , move which will make India first Air force in South Asia to have a fifth generation Aircraft in its inventory . PAK-FA which made its first flight in early 2010 in Russia will have to carry out series of test before the production if the aircraft starts .

IAF version of Pak-Fa will be a Twin Seater aircraft with Indian Avionics and Mission computer on board , but the as per initial agreement between two countries ,first 50 aircraft’s will be based on Single Seater Pak-Fa with Russian Avionics and Sub-system and later 200 Indian version of Pak-Fa will delivered .

This agreement was put in place since Indian Version of Pak-Fa will require some time to mature and to hit production line ,since it will be Twin seater aircraft they will be changes to the airframe and changes in avionics too , in return Russia has agreed to purchase 50 Indian version of Pak-fa .

IAF recently also issued ASR for the Development of Indigenous 5th generation Advance Medium combat Aircraft (AMCA) which will be based on 25 ton category. first flight of which is expected by 2018 .

IAF will induct Pak-FA by 2018 : Air chief


Indian Air Force wants to induct Indo-Russian Built Pak-Fa aircraft by 2018 , move which will make India first Air force in South Asia to have a fifth generation Aircraft in its inventory . PAK-FA which made its first flight in early 2010 in Russia will have to carry out series of test before the production if the aircraft starts .

IAF version of Pak-Fa will be a Twin Seater aircraft with Indian Avionics and Mission computer on board , but the as per initial agreement between two countries ,first 50 aircraft’s will be based on Single Seater Pak-Fa with Russian Avionics and Sub-system and later 200 Indian version of Pak-Fa will delivered .

This agreement was put in place since Indian Version of Pak-Fa will require some time to mature and to hit production line ,since it will be Twin seater aircraft they will be changes to the airframe and changes in avionics too , in return Russia has agreed to purchase 50 Indian version of Pak-fa .

IAF recently also issued ASR for the Development of Indigenous 5th generation Advance Medium combat Aircraft (AMCA) which will be based on 25 ton category. first flight of which is expected by 2018 .

Friday, April 23, 2010

Private contractor developing Saras: Report

BY: Tribune News Service

The Directorate General of Civil Aviation’s (DGCA) report into the crash of the Saras prototype aircraft during a March 2009 test flight has found fault with the project’s management and work practices of its developers, the National Aerospace Laboratory here. Apart from design changes, the report has asked the laboratory not to employ private contractors for designing the country’s first civil aeroplane.

The report has accused the premier laboratory of subcontracting the design and development of Saras to a private agency, Aircraft Design and Engineering Service (ADES) Ltd, Bangalore. “The work schedule of the project indicates that almost complete work on design and development of Saras project is being done by the contractor, including flight testing analysis,” it said.

The laboratory made sure that it would retain the sole right of patenting the design and inserted a clause in its contract with ADES. However, it did not pay much attention to confidentiality and ignored adequate safeguards in case of leakage of technical information by the subcontractor.

The Directorate General of Civil Aviation said that since the 14-seat Saras was a national project, utmost care should be taken in its implementation. “The concept of employing a private contractor in the design and development of the Saras Project requires to be discontinued immediately. Only support for parts and appliances should be obtained from them,” the report said, adding that the contracting system followed by the laboratory needed to be reviewed.

Probable cause of the crash, according to DGCA, could be the incorrect re-light of the second engine by cutting off the live first engine at an insufficient height leading to rapid loss of altitude – a procedure devised by the designer and adopted by the crew.

Lack of crew coordination and cockpit procedures, handling of controls, non-aborting of flight by the crew in coordination with the flight test director after failure of first relight attempt and devising engine relight procedures by NAL without consulting the propeller manufacturer were the contributing factors for the tragic incident, DGCA said.

The report also added that Saras was the first civil turboprop plane being flown by pilots from the Indian Air Force’s Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment. “Assessment of crew for human factor is important. Human factor of the flight crew were not assessed by NAL for the civilian cockpit and flight operation environment (of Saras) as the test pilots are basically from the Air force environment,” the report said. It also pulled up the IAF and said the “management committee” jointly set up by IAF and NAL for monitoring the test flight did not play the role that was originally envisaged for it.

Accident inspector MP Raju submitted his report to DGCA authorities last December. It was put on the public domain today.

Tejas LSP-3 takes off with MMR Radar sucessfully

Source: LiveFist

The Light Combat Aircraft (LCA Tejas) Limited Series Production (LSP) 3 aircraft took off for the first time today. This is the ninth test vehicle to join the flight line to undertake development flight trials of the Light Combat Aircraft Tejas towards operational clearance for induction in the IAF by the end of the year. The LSP-3 is a quantum jump in terms of the equipment fit on the aircraft. It is almost the final configuration including the new air-data computers, Israeli Elta multimode radar, new communication and navigation equipment and radar warning receiver. With this successful flight, the LCA programme is very close to Initial Operations Clearance (IOC), to be achieved by December. The remaining effort is mostly flight testing and demonstration of sensors and weapon performance.

The test aircraft was flown by Wg Cdr G Thomas, VM of the National Flight Test Centre (NFTC) at ADA. As per procedure the first flight was accompanied by a chase aircraft which was a Tejas Trainer flown by Gp Capt RR Tyagi, the Chief Test Pilot and Wg Cdr (Retd) PK Raveendran SC, the Group Director (Flight Test). The test flight was conducted from the Telemetry station by the Test Director, Wg Cdr S Toffeen, under the supervision of Air Cmde Rohit Varma VM, the Project Director (Flight Test). The flight took off from HAL airport in Bangalore and all the objectives of the flight were met within the duration of 52 minutes.

With this flight the total number of test flights accumulated across nine test vehicles of the Tejas programme has reached one thousand three hundred and fifty and has logged about 800 hrs of flight.

Tejas LSP-3 takes off with MMR Radar sucessfully


History has been made , Tejas LSP-3 for the first time carried underneath its Nose cone a Multi-mode radar ( MMR ) , flight which took place around 10.45 am in the Friday morning and lasted for around 50 minutes , and all most went supersonic in its first flight (Mach 0.8) .

Integration of a radar in the aircraft was the last big hurdle in the Tejas Program ,since flight envelope has already been achieved and only radar integration and weapons testing which remains to be done .

Iranian 'clone' S-300 revealed

---Planeman's Blog

An Iranian S-300-like system shown at military parade in April 2010. The components, two TELS (Transporter, Erector, Launcher) look like mock-ups. Also paraded was a 30N6 "Flap Lid B" fire control radar, also on an Iranian 'Babr' truck (same model as TEL), and a surveillance radar, most probably a Russian Nebo type.

An observer pointed out that the Iranian trucks have a much shorter wheel base than the Russian trucks used for other S-300 systems, causing the vehicles to appear rear-heavy. This is most noticeable in the fire control radar vehicle where the control cabin is completely behind the rear axle.

There is the possibly an S-300 system with only Iranian changes being locally produced vehicles. It could also be a hybrid system with minimal S-300 components and more accessible alternatives for things like surveillance radars and battery command centers. Whatever the case it is unlikely that this either represents actual deliveries from Russia of operation-ready kit, or a purely Iranian system. Iran has made some advancements in radar and related technologies needed to develop a credible SAM system, but is still far short of an S-300 comparable system. The most recent 'new' SAM system, shown only days ago, is a reverse engineered I-Hawk system with minor improvements. That is despite years of creeping I-Hawk reverse engineering.

The missile tubes deviate in detail from the real S-300 system, but this alone is inconclusive - even if Iran had live S-300 it would make sense to parade with dummy/drill tubes as is standard Iranian practice and is much safer.

There is of course the possibility that this is a deception by Iran, which could have several motives;

a) to cause doubt and thus deter Western/Israeli actions

b) to pressure Russia to supply S-300

c) to impress Iranians

Most importantly however, there is no real corroborating evidence of operational use.

On the current information it is sensible to consider that Iran may soon operationalize a SAM system in the S-300 class derived from S-300. Even if it's equivalent to S-300PT, it's still a huge leap forward and the only credible threat to IAF/USAF air strikes at medium/high altitude.

Viable 'anti-stealth' capability should not be assumed at this stage.

Tejas LSP-3 to Fly today with Radar


It might come has great relief for Tejas Fan boys , a leading Avaition magazine in its website AviationWeek.com have mentioned that Tejas LSP-3 might have its first flight with radar today . First flight will occur if the weather condition remains normal in Bangalore today ,while Meteorological Department of India have predicted that Bangalore city will be Sunny with cloudy periods with a chance of showers or thundershowers. but also have said that it will be cloudy if no rains occur.

Tejas Lsp-3 has been delayed by almost a year now , and it will be carrying Elta 2032 MMR radar ,since Indian MMR will be delayed ,but there is still confusion regarding radar in media , HAL has still not cleared the confusion whether it will be Indian – Israeli JV MMR Radar or full build Israeli Elta 2032 MMR radar . we at idrw hope to clear the doubts when the actual test flight takes place and more information is provided in media .

Tejas Mk-1 in its current form has cleared Flight envelope for the IOC and radar and weapons testing will enable it to get FOC by 2012 .

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

LCA Tejas to be stationed at new IAF base in Rajasthan

India’s self-developed Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas will be based at the IAF’s brand new forward-operating base at Phalodi in Rajasthan. Medium-lift choppers, Mi-17s will also be stationed at the base which will be 102 km from the India-Pakistan border, said sources.

Uniquely, the new air base that was inaugurated four days ago is the first forward-operating airbase to be commissioned by the IAF in more than two decades. The first lot of the LCA — a squadron of 20 aircraft — is scheduled to be handed over to the IAF in 11 months from now. The second squadron will follow a year later — both are being built at the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) unit at Bangalore. Once handed over to the IAF, the LCA’s first base, briefly, will be at a station in South India, from where the fighters will move in batches to Phalodi, the sources said. Moving planes in small batches is a normal IAF procedure. Phalodi has the capacity to handle other aircraft besides deep penetration radars.

Defence Minister A K Antony had told Parliament last month that the first lot of the LCA would be delivered in March 2011. The Air Force is likely to accord ‘initial operational clearance’ by the end of this year.

Phalodi is the sixth IAF base in Rajasthan. It is located almost equidistant from the three existing IAF bases at Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Nal (Bikaner). The IAF has two others bases in Rajasthan — Suratgarh and Uttarlai (Barmer). Across the border opposite Phalodi are two major Pakistani military bases in Bahawalpur and Rahimyar Khan.

In the past two decades, the IAF had not commissioned or operationalised a new base as it had focused on improving infrastructure in the existing bases across the country — some 70 in number. In the past two years, the IAF has reopened defunct advanced landing grounds at Nyoma, Fukche and Daulet Beg Oldie — all in Ladakh. The forces have a requirement for more than 200 LCA-type aircraft to replace the ageing lot of MiG 21 series of fighters. An additional $ 538.2 million (about Rs 2,500 crore) has been approved by the government for the LCA Phase-II programme. For this, the engines are to be selected soon.
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...